marcus maximus aurelius

Her inheritance included large brickworks on the outskirts of Rome – a profitable enterprise in an era when the city was experiencing a construction boom – and the Horti Domitia Calvillae (or Lucillae), a villa on the Caelian hill of Rome. The city was sacked nonetheless, leaving a black mark on Lucius's reputation. Barnes, 'Hadrian and Lucius Verus', pp. Lucius took the title 'Medicus',[255] and the emperors were again hailed as imperatores, becoming 'imp. [224], Lucius spent most of the campaign in Antioch, though he wintered at Laodicea and summered at Daphne, a resort just outside Antioch. III'. Marcus Aurelius, in full Caesar Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus, original name (until 161 ce) Marcus Annius Verus, (born April 26, 121 ce, Rome [Italy]—died March 17, 180, Vindobona [Vienna, Austria] or Sirmium, Pannonia), Roman emperor (161–180 ce), best known for his Meditations on Stoic philosophy. His condition did not improve, and he abandoned the diet prescribed by his doctors, indulging himself in food and drink. [193] Vologases entered the Kingdom of Armenia (then a Roman client state), expelled its king and installed his own – Pacorus, an Arsacid like himself. Maximus, talk. Marcus's grandfather owned a palace beside the Lateran, where he would spend much of his childhood. The most important group of sources, the biographies contained in the Historia Augusta, claimed to be written by a group of authors at the turn of the 4th century AD, but it is believed they were in fact written by a single author (referred to here as 'the biographer') from about 395 AD. At Hadrian's request, Antoninus's daughter Faustina was betrothed to Lucius. His grandfather and great-grandfather on his father’s side were senators and his mother, Domitia Lucilla (known as the minor, c. 155-161 CE), also came from a wealthy and politically connected family. Marcus Aurelius : My powers will pass to Maximus, to hold in trust until the Senate is ready to rule once more. He would read imperial letters to the senate when Antoninus was absent and would do secretarial work for the senators. … Here is somewhere in the wintry Balkan plains—a long way from Rome—and the question is asked by the emperor Marcus Aurelius of his general Maximus., Ancient History Encyclopedia - Biography of Marcus Aurelius, Heritage History - Biography of Marcus Aurelius, Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy - Biography of Marcus Aurelius, The Catholic Encyclopedia - Biography of Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy - Biography of Marcus Aurelius, Marcus Aurelius - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Once Commodus survived infancy, Marcus was faced with a stark choice: he either had to make him his heir or kill him. His father, Marcus Annius Verus III was a politician and a nobleman. The governing class of the first age of the Roman Empire, the Julio-Claudian, had been little different from that of the late Republic: it was urban Roman (despising outsiders), extravagant, cynical, and amoral. The Meditations is divided into 12 books that chronicle different periods of Marcus' life. [276][277][278] In addition to Republican-era Roman glasswares found at Guangzhou along the South China Sea,[279] Roman golden medallions made during the reign of Antoninus and perhaps even Marcus have been found at Óc Eo, Vietnam, then part of the Kingdom of Funan near the Chinese province of Jiaozhi (in northern Vietnam). Haines's Loeb edition. A great memorable quote from the Gladiator movie on - Maximus: You sent for me, Caesar? He sent for Antoninus, who was at his side when he died on 10 July 138. [215] Marcus Aurelius put on Fronto's voice to chastise himself: ''Much good has my advice done you', you will say!' [105] Marcus pleaded with Fronto, first with 'advice', then as a 'favour', not to attack Atticus; he had already asked Atticus to refrain from making the first blows. Marcus married his cousin Annia Galeria Faustina, the emperor Antoninus Pius’s daughter. Marcus’s personal contribution, however, must not be overstated. They did not survive long. [284] In the view of historian Rafe de Crespigny, the plagues afflicting the Eastern Han empire of China during the reigns of Emperor Huan of Han (r. 146–168) and Emperor Ling of Han (r. 168–189), which struck in 151, 161, 171, 173, 179, 182, and 185, were perhaps connected to the plague in Rome. [112], Fronto had warned Marcus against the study of philosophy early on: 'It is better never to have touched the teaching of philosophy...than to have tasted it superficially, with the edge of the lips, as the saying is'. [147], After Antoninus died in 161, Marcus was effectively sole ruler of the Empire. [316] The oldest surviving complete manuscript copy is in the Vatican library and dates to the 14th century. Lower Moesia was filled by Pontius Laelianus's son. [182] Soon, however, he would find he had many anxieties. [267], The Costoboci, coming from the Carpathian area, invaded Moesia, Macedonia, and Greece. Life changed drastically for Marcus Aurelius, and Rome in 161 when Antoninus Pius died, leaving Marcus effectively as the new Emperor. [296] The last named went so far as to call him "more philanthropic and philosophic" than Antoninus and Hadrian, and set him against the persecuting emperors Domitian and Nero to make the contrast bolder. [177] The tutor was immensely proud of his students. [313] It has been considered by many commentators to be one of the greatest works of philosophy. Blavatsky amongst famous classic sages and writers such as Plato, Eu- ripides, Socrates, Aristophanes, Pindar, Plutarch, Isocrates, Diodorus, Cicero, and Epictetus. [160] Upon his accession he also devalued the Roman currency. Ctesiphon was taken and its royal palace set to flame. [59], At some time in 138, Hadrian requested in the senate that Marcus be exempt from the law barring him from becoming quaestor before his twenty-fourth birthday. There’s also a Netflix docuseries about Commodus called Roman Empire: Reign of Blood (2016), which approaches … Marcus Aurelius Quotes - BrainyQuote The happiness of your life depends upon the quality of your thoughts: therefore, guard accordingly, and take care that you entertain no notions unsuitable to virtue … [114] Marcus kept in close touch with Fronto, but would ignore Fronto's scruples. He may have been known as Marcus Annius Catilius Severus, at birth or some point in his youth, or Marcus Catilius Severus Annius Verus. Marcus made some show of resistance: the biographer writes that he was 'compelled' to take imperial power. He told himself it was an attainable goal – 'Where life is possible, then it is possible to live the right life; life is possible in a palace, so it is possible to live the right life in a palace'[73] – but he found it difficult nonetheless. [135] Lucius had no other titles, except that of 'son of Augustus'. [115], Apollonius may have introduced Marcus to Stoic philosophy, but Quintus Junius Rusticus would have the strongest influence on the boy. Husband of Salonia Matidia: Levick (2014), p. 161. IV' in imperial titulature. [3] For Marcus's life and rule, the biographies of Hadrian, Antoninus, Marcus, and Lucius are largely reliable, but those of Aelius Verus and Avidius Cassius are not. Sister of Trajan's father: Giacosa (1977), p. 7. Malay Peninsula). My name is Maximus Decimus Meridius, commander of the Armies of the North, General of the Felix Legions, loyal servant to the true emperor, Marcus Aurelius. Marcus Aurelius: You have proven your valor once again, Maximus. Marcus Aurelius (Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus; 26 April 121 – 17 March 180) was Roman emperor from 161 to 180 and a Stoic philosopher. The column, right, in the background of Panini's painting of the Palazzo Montecitorio, with the base of the Column of Antoninus Pius in the right foreground (1747). [187], Fronto's letters continued through Marcus's early reign. Marcus Aurelius (/ ɔː ˈ r iː l i ə s /; Latin language: Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus; Rome, 26 April 121 AD – Vienna, 17 March 180 AD) was Roman Emperor from 161 to 180. Man Should Upright. Do I not know that you went to Alsium with the intention of devoting yourself to games, joking, and complete leisure for four whole days? His mother, Domitia Lucilla was a noblewoman, heiress to one of the largest brickwork factory in Rome. [48] Alexander's influence – an emphasis on matter over style and careful wording, with the occasional Homeric quotation – has been detected in Marcus's Meditations. [314], It is not known how widely Marcus's writings were circulated after his death. [60] Marcus's adoption diverted him from the typical career path of his class. [85] He had three tutors in Greek – Aninus Macer, Caninius Celer, and Herodes Atticus – and one in Latin – Fronto. [79] Marcus had complained of an illness in an earlier letter: 'As far as my strength is concerned, I am beginning to get it back; and there is no trace of the pain in my chest. “The Emperor-Marcus Antonius: his conversation with himself. The reign of Marcus Aurelius was marked by military conflict. Three years of fighting were still needed, with Marcus in the thick of it, to restore the Danubian frontier, and three more years of campaigning in Bohemia were enough to bring the tribes beyond the Danube to peace, at least for a time. He sent a note to the imperial freedman Charilas, asking if he could call on the emperors. [63] The succession to Antoninus was peaceful and stable: Antoninus kept Hadrian's nominees in office and appeased the senate, respecting its privileges and commuting the death sentences of men charged in Hadrian's last days. Birley, 'Hadrian to the Antonines', pp. The field most congenial to him seems to have been the law. Marcus was born during the reign of Hadrian to the emperor's nephew, the praetor Marcus Annius Verus, and the heiress Domitia Calvilla. [192] One of those kings, Vologases IV of Parthia, made his move in late summer or early autumn 161. [92], Fronto was highly esteemed: in the self-consciously antiquarian world of Latin letters,[93] he was thought of as second only to Cicero, perhaps even an alternative to him. Marcus Aurelius came from a prominent Roman family. [94][note 6] He did not care much for Atticus, though Marcus was eventually to put the pair on speaking terms. Life changed drastically for Marcus Aurelius, and Rome in 161 when Antoninus Pius died, leaving Marcus effectively as the new Emperor. [136][note 8] He did not marry until 164. [200][note 14], More bad news arrived: the Syrian governor's army had been defeated by the Parthians, and retreated in disarray. The formalities of the position would follow. In contrast to their behaviour during Antoninus's campaign to deify Hadrian, the senate did not oppose the emperors' wishes. The war that followed (162–166) was nominally under the command of Verus, though its successful conclusion, with the overrunning of Armenia and Mesopotamia, was the work of subordinate generals, notably Gaius Avidius Cassius. [169] The births were celebrated on the imperial coinage. [51] While his motives are not certain, it would appear that his goal was to eventually place the then-too-young Marcus on the throne. 'I have duties hanging over me that can hardly be begged off', he wrote back. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The next day, 1 December, Antoninus gave Marcus the tribunician power and the imperium – authority over the armies and provinces of the emperor. Antoninus seems to have given him no military experience; the biographer writes that Marcus spent the whole of Antoninus's twenty-three-year reign at his emperor's side and not in the provinces, where most previous emperors had spent their early careers. Watch the stars, and see yourself running with them. Marcus Aurelius. There had been reverses in Rome's past, Fronto writes,[219] but in the end, Romans had always prevailed over their enemies: 'Always and everywhere [Mars] has changed our troubles into successes and our terrors into triumphs'. Solo reign (180–192) Upon ... At the end of June, a mob demonstrated against Cleander during a horse race in the Circus Maximus: he sent the Praetorian Guard to put down the disturbances, but Pertinax, who was now City Prefect of Rome, dispatched the Vigiles Urbani to oppose them. It is against nature to despise evil people and try to avoid them. Marcus married Antoninus's daughter Faustina in 145. The infants were buried in the Mausoleum of Hadrian, where their epitaphs survive. When Marcus was an old man, exhausted not only by age but also by labors and cares, he suffered a serious illness while visiting the Pannonians. “The best revenge,” he said, “is not to be like that.” Meaning: When you hurt others, you hurt the group and you hurt yourself. Marcus Aurelius, bas-relief depicting his triumphal entry into Rome in a quadriga; in the Palazzo dei Conservatori, Rome. View the list Some people say I have attitude - maybe I do... but I think you have to. Iain King explains that Marcus's legacy was tragic: "[The emperor's] Stoic philosophy – which is about self-restraint, duty, and respect for others – was so abjectly abandoned by the imperial line he anointed on his death. Commodus then strangles his father, makes himself emperor anyway, and tries to have Maximus murdered, setting up the plot for the rest of the film. Marcus and his cousin-wife Faustina had at least 13 children during their 30-year marriage,[123][303] including two sets of twins. Marcus Aurelius, however, is not … [40], Marcus was educated at home, in line with contemporary aristocratic trends;[41] he thanks Catilius Severus for encouraging him to avoid public schools. He was the last of the Five Good Emperors, and is also considered one of the most important Stoic philosophers.. During his reign, the Empire defeated a … However, two years later he reverted to the previous values because of the military crises facing the empire. Marcus Aurelius: I want you to become the protector of Rome after I die. [167][note 11] Aside from the fact that the twins shared Caligula's birthday, the omens were favorable, and the astrologers drew positive horoscopes for the children. The Antonine Plague broke out in 165 or 166 and devastated the population of the Roman Empire, causing the deaths of five million people. [69] Marcus would later caution himself against taking the name too seriously: 'See that you do not turn into a Caesar; do not be dipped into the purple dye – for that can happen'. [126] Marcus steadied himself: 'One man prays: 'How I may not lose my little child', but you must pray: 'How I may not be afraid to lose him'. [174] Lucius Volusius Maecianus, Marcus's former tutor, had been prefectural governor of Egypt at Marcus's accession. Modern scholars have not offered as positive an assessment. [7] Some other literary sources provide specific details: the writings of the physician Galen on the habits of the Antonine elite, the orations of Aelius Aristides on the temper of the times, and the constitutions preserved in the Digest and Codex Justinianeus on Marcus's legal work. 'When Glass Was Treasured in China'. Marco Aurelio Antonino Augusto, [ 2 ] ​ apodado el Sabio o el Filósofo [ 3 ] ​ (Roma, 26 de abril de 121 [ 4 ] ​- Vindobona o Sirmio, 17 de marzo de 180), fue emperador del Imperio romano desde el año 161 hasta el año de su muerte en 180. Marcus Aurelius. [133], Lucius started his political career as a quaestor in 153. His name at birth was supposedly Marcus Annius Verus,[11] but some sources assign this name to him upon his father's death and unofficial adoption by his grandfather, upon his coming of age,[12][13][14] or at the time of his marriage. He was murdered by his son, Commodus, because Marcus had instead appointed Maximus to be his successor. On March 7, 161, at a time when the brothers were jointly consuls (for the third and the second time, respectively), their father died. It was first published in 1558 in Zurich by Wilhelm Xylander (ne Holzmann), from a manuscript reportedly lost shortly afterwards. He may not even have been crowned in Armenia; the ceremony may have taken place in Antioch, or even Ephesus. Birley, 'Hadrian to the Antonines', p. 163, citing. 161, Roman emperor (138–161). [88], Atticus was controversial: an enormously rich Athenian (probably the richest man in the eastern half of the empire), he was quick to anger and resented by his fellow Athenians for his patronizing manner.

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